Messiah of modern Russia or responsible for the collapse of the Soviet Union, know why Gorbachev’s reign remained in controversy – Mikhail Gorbachev Death biography modern russia messiah responsible soviet union collapse

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Messiah of modern Russia or responsible for the collapse of the Soviet Union, know why Gorbachev's reign remained in controversy - Mikhail Gorbachev Death biography modern russia messiah responsible soviet union collapse


Image Source : AP
Mikhail Gorbachev

Highlights

  • Former Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev dies
  • Gorbachev was born in a village in Russia
  • Became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985

Mikhail Gorbachev Death: Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev passed away. He was 91 years old. Russian news agencies ‘TAS’, ‘RIA Novosti’ and ‘Interfax’ have reported Gorbachev’s death, citing ‘Central Clinical Hospital’. Gorbachev’s office had previously reported that he was being treated at the hospital. His tenure was very much in the headlines. During this the Soviet Union had disintegrated and it was divided into 15 countries. Apart from the policies of Joseph Stalin, he worked to end the Cold War. He introduced the concepts of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (change). That’s why they are very much liked in the West.



Gorbachev saw his politics as a return to the principles of Vladimir Lenin, the founder of the Soviet Union, and a humanization of the reconstruction of the economy. In 1985, Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union. He first coined the term perestroika in 1986. The emphasis was placed on the term to campaign for reform within Russia. Its goal was to move away from multiple ministries and introduce market reforms. However, it is also believed that due to this reason the Soviet Union reached the verge of collapse.

How was Gorbachev’s life?


Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in a village in Russia. His grandfather and maternal grandfather were imprisoned during the Great Purge. It was a period of political assassinations and repressions organized by the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin. During the Great Purge, Stalin himself had come down on brutality to come to power and imprisoned many people. Stalin used to harvest crops at the age of 15 with a combine machine. After this he got an opportunity to study law at Moscow State University. Along with this he got the red card of the Communist Party. After 1960, Gorbachev became a powerful leader in the party. In 1971 he became the youngest leader of the Central Committee of the party. In 1978 he moved to Moscow with his daughter and wife Raisa.

There was a time in the Soviet Union, when everything was controlled by the government. For example, if you want to get chips, it should be under government control. The government will decide from where to get potatoes, how to make them and how to sell them. Overall, people did not have much choice. This situation gave Gorbachev the opportunity to visit several countries, where he was surprised to see an open economy. There people had many options. Which Soviet propaganda described as a rotting capitalist system.

What was the Soviet Union like?

In March 1985, Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was the third most populous country in the world at that time and had a total military capacity of five million. But the condition of his economy and agriculture was not strong. From toilet paper to women’s shoes and purses, there was a lack of basic things. Once upon a time, a country where there was no shortage of food grains had to export wheat. Gorbachov understood the reforms. But the first decision he took was to increase the price of liquor. It was a decision that dented his popularity. However, miraculously the anti-alcohol campaign also increased the birth rate.

In 1986, Mikhail Gorbachev announced the reform of the Soviet economy with the term perestroika. Through this he allowed small businesses and reduced censorship on the media. This led to television shows and startling investigative reports on the prosperity of Western nations. Things that people did not have access to were being told about them through TV. However, his economic policies did not prove to be as good as was expected. Government shops remained closed and things became expensive in the open market. The fall in oil prices also took a toll on the economy, causing tension in various parts of the country.

End of Cold War?


Of course it is believed that Mikhail Gorbachev was not right for the Soviet Union but he took decisions to save the world from nuclear war. He and US President Ronald Reagan signed several important agreements related to reducing the number of nuclear weapons and missiles. In 1988, Ronald Reagan, during a speech in Red Square, even said that he does not see the Soviet Union as an evil empire. In 1990, Mikhail was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The award-giving committee noted that the relationship between the East and the West had changed dramatically during his reign.

When elections were held democratically for the first time in Soviet history, he was elected a non-communist representative. Everyone was demanding the separation of their respective states. Censorship from the media was reduced, due to which his speech was seen by the whole country. The first declaration of independence was made by the Baltic countries. In 1990 Gorbachev was elected the last leader of the Soviet Union. His main rival in domestic politics was Boris Yeltsin, who later became the first President of Russia. When Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1990, Russia under the leadership of Boris declared a separate country. Russia became a separate country on 12 December 1991. Under Boris’s rule, the Soviet Union broke up into 15 countries, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The breakup of the Soviet Union was the political escape from Gorbachev.

many major changes were introduced

Gorbachev remained in power for less than seven years, but he initiated several major changes. These changes soon overtook them, leading to the disintegration of the totalitarian Soviet Union, the liberation of Eastern European nations from Russian domination, and the end of decades of East-West nuclear conflict. US President Joe Biden described Gorbachev as a “man with remarkable vision” and a “rare leader” who “had the imagination to see that a different future was possible and who had his entire career at stake to achieve it”. Had the courage to put it up. “As a result, the world is safer and millions of people have more freedom,” Biden said in a statement.

Michael McFall, a political analyst and former US ambassador to Moscow, tweeted that there is hardly anyone else to do the way Gorbachev has given history a positive direction. The fall of Gorbachev’s supremacy was humiliating. His power was hopelessly depleted by the August 1991 coup attempt against him. One after the other the republics declared themselves independent in the last days of his term. He resigned on December 25, 1991. A day after this the Soviet Union disintegrated. Some 25 years later, Gorbachev told the Associated Press (AP) that he did not contemplate using massive force to try to keep the Soviet Union together because he felt the need for anarchic decisions in a nuclear-armed country. There was apprehension.

Gorbachev becomes most influential political figure

At the end of his reign, he did not have the power to stop the whirlwind that he had started. Despite this, Gorbachev was the most influential political figure in the second half of the 20th century. Gorbachev told the AP in 1992, shortly after leaving office, “I see myself as a man who initiated the reforms needed for the country, Europe and the world.” Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his role in ending the Cold War. He received praise and awards from all parts of the world, but he faced widespread condemnation in his country. The Russians blamed him for the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union, once a superpower, split into 15 different countries. Gorbachev’s allies abandoned him and made him a scapegoat for the country’s woes.

He contested the presidential election in 1996 and had to be the object of mockery. He got only one percent of the vote. He made a TV commercial for Pizza Hut in 1997 to earn money for his charitable organization. Gorbachev never wanted to dismantle the Soviet system, but instead wanted to reform it. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in the village of Privolnoye, Southern Russia. He studied at the country’s best university, Moscow State, where he met Raisa Maximovna Titorenko, whom he later married. During this time he joined the Communist Party.

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